If you look at some of the websites most used by translators, you might be forgiven for thinking they are speaking a different language! Just as in any profession, translation has its own terms and acronyms. To commemorate International Translation Day, which takes place on 30 September, here are some of the most commonly terms and acronyms in the field of language services:
Back Translation: Translation of a previously translated text back into its source language.
CAT Tool (Computer-Assisted Translation Tool): A tool commonly used by translators to speed up their work. Most CAT tools will divide the source text into segments (see segmentation) and remove the formatting so that the translators can then focus only on the text. CAT tools also remember previous translations, allowing translators to look up the exact expressions used in previous translations and therefore ensuring consistency. Once the translation is finished, the CAT tool exports it into the same format as the original document. Unlike machine translation, the translations are entirely done by a human, the computer is just used to simplify the format and improve the quality of the end document.
Consistency: How often a term or phrase is rendered the same way in the target language. Context: Information outside of the actual text that is essential for complete comprehension (e.g. who the target audience is, the reason for the document, etc.).
Culturally-Sensitive Translation: Translation that takes into account cultural differences.
Editing: Reviewing and changing a document in order to improve the flow and overall quality of the writing, ensuring that the document makes sense, cutting down on wordiness and clarifying any ambiguity.
FIO (For Information Only) Translation or Gist Translation: A rough translation of the source text that allows the reader to understand the essence of the text but that is not intended for publication.
Glocal: Combination of the words 'global' and 'local,' description of products or services intended for international markets that have been customized for different cultures, countries or languages.
In-Country Review: Editing of a translated text by a person residing within the country where the target text will be used.
Internationalization: Planning and preparation stages for a product that is designed to support global markets.
Localisation: Adapting or modifying a product, service, or website to a different culture. This does not always include translation, as it could involve adapting a US-based business website to the UK for example. The hashtag #L10N is often used to refer to localisation on social media.
Language Pair: Languages in which a translator can provide services.
Literal Translation: Translation that closely follows the phrasing, order and sentence construction of the source text.
LSP (Language Services Provider): business supplying language services such as translating or interpreting.
Meaning-For-Meaning Translation: Translation in which the words used in both languages may not be exact equivalents, but the meaning is the same.
Mega-Language: One of the ten most important languages on the web (Chinese, Dutch, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish).
Mother Tongue: a person's native or first language, learned naturally, usually since childhood.
MT (Machine Translation), also known as Automatic Translation: Using a computer to perform the actual translation with no input from an actual human. The most famous machine translation tool is Google Translate (see previous blog article).
QA (Quality Assurance), also known as Quality Control: Reviewing the target text with the purpose of catching errors to ensure the quality of the translation.
Register: Level of formality of the text that depends on the terminology, grammar and tone used. Segmentation: Dividing the source text into smaller segments to make it easier to translate, usually based on language construction rules such as punctuation.
Source Language: The language in which the original document was written.
Source Text: The original document that needs to be translated.
Target Audience: Group of people who will receive the information rendered by the translator in the target language.
Target Language: The language of the translation.
Target Text: The translation.
Transcreation: Developing new content (based on existing content) for a given target audience rather than translating existing material.
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People seem to have mixed feelings about Google Translate. On the one hand, you will see it used for everything and anything by people who swear by it; whereas, another category of people would not touch it with a six-foot pole. So how useful is Google Translate and should you use it for your business?
Google Translate can be a wonderful tool for businesses and individuals. Let's say you are planning on going on holiday to Rome. You can use Google Translate to gain a general understanding of hotel websites. Or, imagine your business is contacted by a foreign company and that, although their email to you may be in English, their website is not. Google Translate can allow you to quickly see what they do, where they are based and perhaps gain some insight into the type of partnership they could offer . When it comes to getting a general understanding of material in a foreign language, Google Translate is absolutely brilliant.
However, Google Translate reaches its limits when it comes to creating a precise, culturally-sensitive translation. Although its machine-software can be quite accurate, it still struggles with determining the exact meaning of the word to translate (e.g. A "tote" can be either a handbag or a plastic bin - a human can use their understanding of the context and situation, and occasionally their intuition, to select the correct meaning and therefore the appropriate translation, whereas Google Translate works on a probabilities' game). In addition, some expressions, such as proverbs, cannot be translated literally (the literal translation of the French proverb "L'habit ne fait pas le moine" is "The vestment does not make the monk". However, its true meaning is closer to the English expression "Don't judge a book by its cover"). Another issue is that of cultural appropriateness. Certain expressions or words can have a different meaning in another culture, so a literal translation may sound rude or inappropriate to your target audience. Take for instance the Spanish town whose turnip festival was translated as something X-rated (you can read more about it in this newspaper article)!
Google Translate works using statistics, so if you take a sentence in English, translate it into another language and then translate it back into English, the result may have nothing to do with your original phrase. For example, let's take the classic quote from Casablanca: "Play it, Sam. Play As Time Goes By". After going back and forth a few times between English and Japanese (courtesy of the Translation Party! website), the English becomes "It plays Sam. However, time will tell".
In summary, if you want a 'for information only' translation, then Google Translate is perfect. It is accurate enough to give you the gist of a website or document; and, as it is free, it can allow you to decide whether you are interested enough in the content to get it translated professionally. However, if the translation is intended for publication (online or paper) and will be read by the general public, you would be better off using a professional translator to avoid accidentally confusing or insulting your target audience.
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Having your website available in several languages is essential if you have a multilingual customer base. Here are some tips on how to make sure the translation process goes smoothly.
1- Localisation: While the words themselves need to be translated of course, some of the concepts may also need to be adapted for your target market. This includes converting measurements (e.g. from the imperial to the metric system) and adapting cultural references so they can be understood by your new audience.
2- SEO: There is no point having your list of keywords translated literally if your target market will not be using them to search for your products or services. I recommend conducting market research to produce a list of keywords specifically used in that language/country/region or commissioning your translator to do this for you.
3- Length: Do not forget to take into account the fact that different languages will take up different amounts of space on the screen. For example, French tends to be 15% to 20% longer than English. As a result, text that fits perfectly one a button in English may end up being too long in French!
4- Layout: To avoid the issue mentioned above, I would highly recommend showing your translator a mock-up of the layout or a version of the site in the source language. If you explain the purpose of each element (e.g., header, body, button) as well as any length constraints, a good translator will then adapt the translation to fit these constraints. This avoids you having to make last minute changes when the text won’t fit on the screen!
5- Formatting: One way to speed up the process is to have your translator work directly in the html file. This way, all you need to do is upload the new html files to the new site, without trying to copy-paste the translation into the html. Most professional translators will use specific software allowing them to work in the html file without running the risk of accidentally modifying the coding. This also helps the translator to identify some of the potential layout issues as the html code helps identify the various webpage elements.
6- Pictures: The pictures used for the original website may not be adapted to the culture of your target audience. For example, what is acceptable in one country may not be in another market. However, the use of culturally relevant images extends beyond simply avoiding offensive ones. Images help create a connection with your audience, so check that the people in the photographs have a similar appearance to website visitors and that the backgrounds correspond to that region’s climate and architecture.
7- Content Management System (CMS): This may seem obvious, but this step is often overlooked. Make sure your current CMS supports the new language, as this can be an issue with right-to-left languages such as Arabic and Hebrew or double-bit Asian scripts like Japanese, Chinese and Korean.
8- Proofread at every stage: make sure that your translator proofreads the final version once it is ready to go live, paying particular attention to any typos and formatting errors. You want the version your clients see to be perfect, so smooth out any teething errors before publishing it.
As you can see, the common feature of most of these tips is to think of the translation from the target market’s point of view. As professional translators are always native speakers of the language they translate into, I recommend bringing up these points with them. They can then recommend changes or point you in the direction of a cultural consultant. In addition, by clarifying any formatting constraints ahead of time, you can help your translator get it right the first time round, leaving you with the perfect website translation.
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One question that business looking to expand internationally often ask is whether they should translate their website into various languages or have a single central website in English for all their international customers.
A single website in English works best if the majority of your customers are native English speakers. However, you will need to think about which type of English you want to use. Will your customers tend to prefer UK, US or Australian English? This will have an impact on the spelling, grammar, vocabulary and style choices. It is also best to avoid cultural references that are specific to a certain country, as they might confuse your audience.
However, if you are mainly targeting people in non-English-speaking countries, it makes sense to get your website pages and keywords professionally translated by a native speaker. Indeed, research shows that 75% of consumers prefer to buy products in their native language. It may also be useful to brainstorm cultural differences between your current English-speaking market and the new market you are trying to reach to avoid any faux pas. You should make sure that the colours, the images and the branding you use are culturally appropriate and reflect the local environment (climate, architecture, etc.).
Once you have made the decision to translate your website, you have two options available to you. You can keep your current website and add a button to change the language. This lowers your costs and still provides you with a unique URL you can provide to your customers. However, you may struggle with SEO for this new market. You can also get a relevant domain name in the target language and register this with the appropriate country suffix (for example, in France your website should end with ‘.fr’). In this instance, your translated site will rank higher on search engines and customers will find it easier to use and buy from.
So, to summarise, you can:
Which is the better option? That will depend on who you are trying to market to:
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Interpreting and translation are closely related, yet they are rarely performed by the same people. Interpreters work with spoken language, transferring the meaning of an oral text (such as a speech) from one language to another, as opposed to translators, who transfer the meaning of a written text from one language into another.
However, within these categories, there are also different types of translators and interpreters. Here are some of the most commonly terms used to describe them.
A translator who has received accreditation from a professional association, such as the Chartered Institute of Linguists.
As there is no official certification program for translators in the UK, there is no such thing a certified translator per se. Only translators who are accredited with the two main professional translation associations in the UK (Chartered Institute of Linguists and Institute of Translation and Interpreting) may produce a certificate of translation to accompany the translation of official documents.
Certified court interpreter
A person who has passed an examination to assess competency to interpret during court proceedings, usually the Diploma in Public Service Interpreting (DPSI) in the UK.
A practitioner who is committed to maintaining high professional standards, continually developing professional language skills and specialist knowledge, awarded this status as a badge of quality and confidence by the Chartered Institute of Linguists.
An interpreter trained, knowledgeable and experienced in conference interpretation (oral translation of a speech during a conference or convention).
A person who translates written text intended for use during a conference, or generated during a conference (such as conference proceedings, etc.).
An interpreter who listens while the speaker speaks and then interprets while the speaker pauses, either for a specific person or for the entire room.
Highly skilled interpreter with an extensive knowledge of comparative law who interprets at continuing legal education seminars, bar association conventions, etc.
A translator with an extensive knowledge of comparative law who specialises in international legal documents such as contracts, licenses, franchises and legislation.
A translator who specialises in the translation of fiction, such as novels and poetry.
A highly skilled interpreter with knowledge of medical procedures and specialities, who interprets during medical conventions, continuing medical education seminars, medical equipment demonstrations, teaching of new surgical procedures, etc.
A translator who specialises in the translation of medical texts, such as research, medical devices, medical equipment manuals, books, patents, etc.
A person who translates speech orally into another language at the same time and at the same rate of speech as the speaker.
In some countries, such as France, a sworn translator is a certified translator accredited to translate court documents.
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